Domestic Enemy No. 1

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Solemnly, freely, and without mental reservation, I hereby renounce under oath all allegiance to any foreign state. My fidelity and allegiance from this day forward is to the United States of America. I pledge to support, honor, and be loyal to the United States, its Constitution, and its laws. Where and if lawfully required, I further commit myself to defend the Constitution and laws of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic, either by military, noncombatant, or civilian service.

This I do solemnly swear, so help me God.


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The introduction of the new oath was scrapped by the U. In United States v. Schwimmer , the U. Supreme Court upheld the denial of citizenship to an applicant who declared not to be willing to "take up arms personally" in defense of the United States. The applicant, Hungarian-born female suffragist Rosika Schwimmer , had written that she was an "uncompromising pacifist" with "no sense of nationalism, only a cosmic consciousness of belonging to the human family".

The language trickles down

The Court found that persons holding such views were "liable to be incapable of the attachment for and devotion to the principles of our Constitution" that are required for naturalization. When asked if he would bear arms and perform noncombatant military service as required by the Oath, Huxley answered in the negative and was summoned before a judge.


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Huxley explained that his objection was based on philosophical convictions about the evil of war rather than religious beliefs. The judge adjourned proceedings and postponed a decision on Huxley's application in order to report to Washington. Huxley never received U. In the case In re Weitzman , a U. She expressed a total "objection to warfare and the bearing of arms" conscientious objectorship , being "repulsed by no particular war, but by all killing.

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The precedent relied upon was United States v. Seeger However, in Welsh v.

United States , [21] the Supreme Court, having noted the case factually similar and controlled by United States v. Seeger , determined in respect to the provision in the Universal Military Training and Service Act that exempts from military service persons who by reason of "religious training and belief" are conscientiously opposed to war, that the Act:. To comport with that clause, an exemption must be "neutral" and include those whose belief emanates from a purely moral, ethical, or philosophical source.

This judgement was used in to reverse a denial of citizenship to Margaret Doughty, a 65 year old British atheist who had lived in the United States for 30 years, unless she could show proof of membership in a church with pacifist beliefs to support her claim that she was a conscientious objector entitled to omit the Oath's clause about bearing arms. United States. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Att'y Gen.

Domestic Terror Enemy No. 1: Lone Wolves Like Orlando Mass Murderer

Rodriguez , U. Shalala , 23 F. Gonzales , F. Sessions , F. Retrieved Lancaster Press. Cox, Airbnb wanted to know? Well yes, Mr. Cox thought, or he could just walk downstairs since he works in the same building as Airbnb, close enough to connect to their Wi-Fi. By day, Mr. Cox spends his time on the 27 th floor of a corporate skyscraper as a vice president for a tech start-up, surreptitiously riding the elevator with Airbnb employees who occupy space on the 26 th floor.

To Mr. Cox, publicly undermining his work while accusing him of being in the pocket of the hotel industry. To do so, it must broker a ceasefire with Mr. After half a decade of rebuttals mostly by press release, Mr. Cox was taken aback by the sudden prospect of a face-to-face meeting. Sitting in the apartment he shares with his dog Finch, Mr. Cox read and re-read the message, wondering if it was some kind of trick.

Cox says in an interview, dressed in a denim shirt and Nike sneakers, as he picks at a plate of vegetables and tofu at a Manhattan noodle shop. I believe housing is a human right; not an economic tool or a commodity. Cox studied computer science at the University of Sydney and since graduating in the mid s, has worked at small tech start-ups and dabbled in photojournalism.

Sculpture for Soviet Domestic Enemy No.1

After some globe-trotting, Mr. Cox settled down in Brooklyn in That same year, Brian Chesky, Joe Gebbia and Nathan Blecharczyk launched Airbnb, inviting strangers into their apartment in San Francisco for short-term stays to help pay rent. As it expanded, Airbnb has faced increasing pushback from many cities that say its model squelches the housing supply, raises rents and pushes long-term residents out.

Cox first started noticing this phenomenon in his own neighborhood in the summer of At the time he was working with a youth group, teaching kids about gentrification, segregation and housing pressures. But in looking over the data, he was surprised to learn that, in fact, hosts were renting out entire homes. What began as a simple class project turned into an obsession that spawned the website Inside Airbnb. Cox now spends about 10 hours a week parsing statistics from listings in more than cities and fielding half a dozen queries from academics and journalists around the world.

Using publicly available information, Inside Airbnb gives a view into how many listings there are in a certain zip code, how many are entire private homes versus a room in a home, the price and the number of reviews each has received. A New York law from made it illegal to rent an entire apartment in a multi-unit building for less than 30 days without a tenant present.

Listings in San Francisco dropped by about half in after the city required Airbnb to automatically register hosts on its site. New York could suffer a similar fate.

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