He says we must realize that the nuances of human motivation is a challenge in itself; humans often fail to do what they "ought" to do even to be successfully selfish—there is every reason to believe that discovering what is best for society would not change every member's habits overnight.
Harris does not imagine that people, even scientists, have always made the right moral decisions—indeed it is precisely his argument that many of them are wrong about moral facts. He mentions the research of Paul Slovic and others to describe just a few of these established mental heuristics that might keep us from reasoning properly. Harris explains that debates and disagreement are a part of the scientific method , and that one side can certainly be wrong.
The book is full of issues that Harris thinks are far from being empirically, morally grey areas. That is, besides saying that 'reasonable' thinking about moral issues amounts to scientific thinking. For instance, he references one poll that found that 36 percent of British Muslims think apostates should be put to death for their unbelief,  and he says that these individuals are "morally confused".
In one section, called The illusion of free will , Harris argues that there is a wealth of evidence in psychology e. This, he thinks, is intuitive; "trains of thought But from a deeper perspective One implication of a determined will, Harris says, is that it becomes unreasonable to punish people out of retribution—only behaviour modification and the deterrence of others still seem to be potentially valid reasons to punish. Consider what would happen if we discovered a cure for human evil.
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Imagine, for the sake of argument Would this make any moral sense at all? Harris acknowledges a hierarchy of moral consideration e. He says it follows that there could, in principle, be a species compared to which we are relatively unimportant although he doubts such a species exists. Harris supports the development of lie-detection technology and believes it would be, on the whole, beneficial for humanity.
He also supports the formation of an explicit global civilization because of the potential for stability under a world government.
The Knowledge of Right and Wrong
Consistent with Harris's definition of morality, he says we must ask whether religion increases human flourishing today regardless of whether it increased it in the distant past. Harris criticizes the tactics of secularists like Chris Mooney , who argue that science is not fundamentally and certainly not superficially in conflict with religion. Harris sees this as a very serious disagreement, that patronizingly attempts to pacify more devout theists.
In advance of publication, four personal and professional acquaintances of the author offered their praise for the book,  including biologist and science popularizer Richard Dawkins , novelist Ian McEwan , psycholinguist Steven Pinker , and theoretical physicist Lawrence Krauss. They each serve on the Advisory Board of Harris's Project Reason ,  and their praise appears as blurbs released by the book's publisher on Harris's website and reproduced on the book's dust jacket.
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I was one of those who had unthinkingly bought into the hectoring myth that science can say nothing about morals. To my surprise, The Moral Landscape has changed all that for me. It should change it for philosophers too. Philosophers of mind have already discovered that they can't duck the study of neuroscience, and the best of them have raised their game as a result McEwan wrote that "Harris breathes intellectual fire into an ancient debate.
Commandments Lead Us to Light
Reading this thrilling, audacious book, you feel the ground shifting beneath your feet. Reason has never had a more passionate advocate. Diller  and Andrew E. Nuzzolilli wrote a generally favorable review in a journal of the Association for Behavior Analysis International :.
Some Reflections on “Right” and “Wrong”
The Moral Landscape represents an important contribution to a scientific discussion of morality. It explicates the determinants of moral behavior for a popular audience, placing causality in the external environment and in the organism's correlated neurological states. Kwame Anthony Appiah wrote in The New York Times "when [Harris] stays closest to neuroscience, he says much that is interesting and important Cognitive anthropologist Scott Atran criticized Harris for failing to engage with the philosophical literature on ethics and the problems in attempting to scientifically quantify human well being, noting that.
Nobel Prize-winner Daniel Kahneman studies what gives Americans pleasure—watching TV, talking to friends, having sex—and what makes them unhappy—commuting, working, looking after their children. So this leaves us where Imagine a sociologist who wrote about evolutionary theory without discussing the work of Darwin, Fisher, Mayr, Hamilton, Trivers or Dawkins on the grounds that he did not come to his conclusions by reading about biology and because discussing concepts such as "adaptation", "speciation", "homology", "phylogenetics" or "kin selection" would "increase the amount of boredom in the universe".
Social order persists despite ample opportunity for reprehensible conduct, testifying to the decisive constraints that common morality imposes on the way we exercise our legal prerogatives.
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- Professor Osiel's new book, The Right to Do Wrong | Iowa Law.
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The Right to Do Wrong collects vivid case studies and social scientific research to explore how resistance to the exercise of rights picks up where law leaves off and shapes the legal system in turn. Osiel builds on recent evidence that declining social trust leads to increasing reliance on law, and contends that as social changes produce stronger assertions of individual rights, it becomes more difficult to depend on informal tempering of our unfettered freedoms.
Social norms can be indefensible, Osiel recognizes.
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