She fears the insidious poisons, spread as sprays and dust or put in foods, far more than the radioactive debris from a nuclear war.
Miss Carson, with the fervor an Ezekiel, is trying to save nature and mankind from chemical biocides that John H. Her account of the present is dismal. It is not hopeless--at least not yet. A few others may recall that tax money was paid not only to growers of cranberries, but also a year or so earlier to poultry raisers whose chickens retained dangerous amounts of a chemical included in poultry feed upon Government recommendation and had to be condemned. Miss Carson adds many other instances to the list, and points to programs that cost many millions of tax dollars, yet were doomed at the outset to failure.
She gives details about the gypsy-moth campaigns that killed fish, crabs and birds as well as some gypsy moths; about the fire-ant program that killed cows, wiped out pheasants, but not fire ants; and dozens of others that led to more of the pest or of new pests by destroying the natural means of control. Miss Carson gives most of her attention to insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, since these are the most dangerous poisons.
She shows the futility of relying on them or any new substitutes offered to counteract the swift evolution of immunity to chemical control shown by more and more insects and fungus diseases. She quotes an authority on cancer, Dr. The fatty storage depots act as biological magnifiers, so that an intake of as little as one-tenth of 1 part per million in the diet results in storage of about 10 to 15 parts per million, an increase of one hundredfold or more.
In some of the chapters, Miss Carson does approve of alternatives to the widespread use of poisonous chemicals.
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The natural struggle for survival can then keep the numbers of the pests at a fairly low level. This approach, as Miss Carson emphasizes, rarely creates new pests, whereas extermination campaigns often do so. Skin lesions are the most common outward sign of chronic arsenic exposure, though many dermatologic symptoms are thought to be mediated by nutritional factors.
Studies conducted in Taiwan, India, and Bangladesh have linked high-arsenic well water with the incidence of both skin lesions and diabetes in a dose-responsive pattern. Among children, chronic arsenic exposure has also been reported to cause adverse effects on the digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. There is evidence that arsenic-exposed people who are predisposed to noncancerous skin lesions may be more vulnerable to other cancers.
The lung, too, seems to be a major site of action of ingested arsenic. The prevalence and incidence of these noncancer manifestations of arsenic exposure is highly variable from one country to the next. For example, whereas skin pigmentation and hyperkeratosis are common indicators of arsenic exposure in Taiwan, it may be more common in India to see respiratory stress, polyneuropathy, and peripheral vascular disease linked with habitual ingestion of high-arsenic drinking water.
This topic remains a very active area for epidemiologic research. Globally, millions of people are at risk for the adverse effects of arsenic exposure.
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The majority of harmful arsenic exposure comes from drinking water from wells drilled through arsenic-bearing sediments. Drinking water contains primarily inorganic arsenic, which is more acutely toxic than the organic form. The other major sources of arsenic exposure are through food, soil, and air. For most people, in fact, the primary exposure to arsenic comes from food, but dietary arsenic includes primarily organic forms, which are relatively nontoxic and contribute little, if any, to the overall risk associated with exposure.
Unless otherwise indicated, all mentions of arsenic in the remainder of this article refer to the inorganic form. Moreover, arsenic-laced irrigation water can substantially increase the arsenic content of rice and vegetables, as recently shown in several studies in Southeast Asia, including a February Chemosphere report on West Bengal crops and soil.
Soil- and waterborne arsenic does not readily permeate the skin, though soil can be a key source of exposure in young children who show significant hand-to-mouth activity. People are also exposed on a more sporadic basis through a hodgepodge of human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels, waste incineration, smelting of ores, pesticide and herbicide use, coal burning, semiconductor production, and other manufacturing processes. The public health impact of these exposures is largely unknown as the epidemiologic focus has been on exposure via drinking water.
For most U. To date, no statistically significant relationships have been found between arsenic exposure and cancer in these areas. The situation in Bangladesh and West Bengal is radically different: arsenic exposure through drinking naturally contaminated groundwater is widespread and often excessive. Field studies have shown that many people living in a vast geological zone known as the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain are being exposed to high arsenic levels in the water. A large portion of this plain, an area totaling , square kilometers and spanning all of Bangladesh and most of India, shows significant groundwater arsenic contamination, putting more than million people at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning, says Chakraborti.
He published these alarming estimates in the June issue of the Journal of Environment Monitoring. Large areas of China also face severe arsenic exposure from groundwater contamination, with more than 3 million people affected, based on estimates in the August issue of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. In Shanxi Province alone, an estimated , people are at risk of arsenicosis. A unique type of exposure, resulting from the burning of arsenic-rich coal, is found in Guizhou Province, an area of endemic arsenicosis. Guizhou inhabitants commonly use this coal for cooking, heating, and drying their dietary staples of corn and hot peppers.
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The coal is burned in open stoves without chimneys, resulting in contamination of both the indoor air and the foods being prepared. At this time, arsenicosis is known to affect eight provinces, but most of China has not been studied, and new endemic areas are continuously emerging. Reports on arsenicosis in China actually preceded those from Bangladesh and India, but have been overlooked due to limited scientific exchange and publication. In the Obuasi area of Ghana, arsenic contamination of food and water has been linked with gold-mining activities.
Much of the gold in the Obuasi mines is locked in pyrite and arsenopyrite, both associated with arsenic and sulfur. The extraction of the gold results in the release of airborne particles that include large concentrations of arsenic. According to Chakraborti, around , people in Terai are at risk of arsenic poisoning from drinking this water, and up to 1 in 20 people may show skin lesions indicative of arsenicosis.
The Arsenic–Cancer Equation
Although inorganic arsenic is generally held to be more acutely toxic, some researchers argue that the organic metabolites of arsenic may be the ultimate carcinogens. One of these metabolites, DMA, has been shown in rodents to induce bladder cancer and to promote tumor growth in several other organs. A review article focusing on induced disturbances of calcium homeostasis, genomic damage, and apoptotic cell death caused by arsenic and its organic metabolites appears in the June issue of EHP.
There is general agreement that arsenic does not directly interact with DNA, and that its toxic effects occur through indirect alteration of gene expression, such as via the perturbation of DNA methylation, inhibition of DNA repair, oxidative stress, and altered modulation of signal transduction pathways. Many of these mechanisms are overlapping, interdependent, and heavily influenced by factors in the cellular environment.
For example, arsenic promotes both oxidative stress and impaired DNA repair, and yet both of these effects tend to amplify mutation rates, thus increasing the likelihood of cancer. Another indirect mechanism is the influence of growth-stimulating chemicals or cytokines generated in response to arsenic exposure. Arsenic seems to stimulate progenitor cells that could ultimately be responsible for tumor formation. This is just one of a number of mechanisms that has biological plausibility. Studies of differences in arsenic metabolism between individuals have led to further insights—and further questions.
The importance of individual arsenic metabolites in terms of cancer induction is still being determined. All of the human populations studied thus far have been found to methylate inorganic arsenic, but the patterns of arsenic metabolites in urine show substantial interindividual variation.
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Within any given population, individuals differ in the quantity and distribution of the various metabolites of arsenic excreted by the kidney. If some happen to excrete more of the carcinogenic metabolites or are unable to metabolize arsenic efficiently, they may be more vulnerable to cancer. This variation may be affected by a variety of factors, including dose level, route s of exposure, diet, and the particular type of arsenic to which the individual is exposed.
Backing a number adjacent to, or arithmetically related to, the winner meant their luck was returning. Many gamblers believed that chance and luck were not just abstract ideas but were causal forces which were open to manipulation. These magical beliefs are derived from are understandable in terms of the compulsion, the arousal and the excitement of pathological gambling.
The phenomenology is molded to fit. Jaspers solves this problem neatly by shifting the whole emphasis. For him, the important distinction is not between overvalued idea and delusion-like idea but rather between delusion-like idea and primary delusion. Jaspers, therefore, makes no real distinction between the overvalued idea and the delusion-like idea.
There are several occasions when he simply equates the two. The other group is for us psychologically irreducible; phenomenologically it is something final. Thus, the essential distinguishing factor within the four forms of belief is the concept of understanding. One can understand the evolution or development of the normal belief and the overvalued idea from the personality and its life events. One can understand the delusion-like idea from personality, life events and from some other psychopathological experience but the primary delusion is something new, irreducible and non-understandable.
The primary delusion is of paramount importance for Jaspers. Including the above distinction of a lack of understandability, the primary delusion differs in three ways from the other three forms of belief: a The primary delusion is unmediated by thought.
Jaspers does try to clarify what he has in mind by this distinction. The distinction is crucial: We have to distinguish between immediate certainty of reality and reality judgment. Jaspers gives some further examples of the distinction [ Table 1 ].
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The primary delusion is a direct, immediate or unmediated phenomenon while the other three forms of belief are all mediated by thought. That is, normal beliefs, overvalued ideas and delusion-like ideas are all reflective, considered interpretations. In fact, the primary delusion is essentially not a belief or judgment at all but rather an experience. The German is primare Wahnerlebnis - primary delusional experience.
Primary delusion is the experience of delusional meaning. The experience of meaning Bedeutung is implicit in all perception and it is the distortion of this implicit meaning which is the primary delusional experience. Perceptions are never mechanical responses to sense stimuli; there is always at the same time a perception of meaning. A house is there for people to inhabit. If I see a knife, I see directly, immediately a tool for cutting. We may not be explicitly conscious of the meanings we make when we perceive but nevertheless they are always present.
The awareness of meaning undergoes a radical transformation.